OPM Breach Offers Tough Lessons For CIOs - InformationWeek

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6/17/2015
11:06 AM
Larry Loeb
Larry Loeb
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OPM Breach Offers Tough Lessons For CIOs

While your enterprise may have a chief information security officer and a robust data governance department, CIOs and IT organizations are the ones on the front lines of protecting enterprise data. What lessons can we draw from the OPM breach?

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Windows 10 vs. Mac OS X 10.11: OS Showdown
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The recent breach at the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM) exposed data on 35 million government employees. According to a Reuters report, more than 35 years of data were compromised. This comes on the heels of a previous breach at OPM in 2014 that was targeted to unearth those applying for security clearance.

The FBI points the finger at China in these episodes, but China is not by any means the only threat. The US has recently charged a Russian national in the theft of 160 million credit card details, as well as Russia itself in a cyber-attack on a non-classified White House system. Government agencies are not the only targets. Sony allegedly got hammered by North Korea in The Interview dust-up, and ended up changing how it does business because of it. Health insurance provider Anthem had 80 million records compromised.

While your enterprise may have a chief information security officer and a robust data governance department, CIOs and IT organizations are the ones on the front lines of protecting enterprise data. What lessons can we draw from the OPM breach?

(Image: tigerlily via Pixabay)

(Image: tigerlily via Pixabay)

The most obvious lesson is that legacy systems are vulnerable. Legacy infrastructure is open to attack techniques and tools that may not have even existed two years ago. In general, legacy systems are very tempting to hackers because they are static in their form (and therefore easier to breach), and will usually have important information stored somewhere inside them.

Since it is highly unlikely that a "burn it down and start again" system upgrade is a viable option, IT is left with the task of trying to improve how it uses what is already there.

Networks are the first place to start. Most users don't care how networks are configured as long as they work. But hackers will care. Networks are the means for them to break into your house. If you have a data superhighway leading into your datacenter, consider putting up the tollbooths of network segmentation. Segmentation techniques can alert you if data starts being massively diverted to one specific area where it shouldn't be going.

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The second tollbooth should be multi-factor authentication of data requests. More than using a username/password combination to authenticate, this approach requires the user to provide additional information in response to a challenge. Had this been in place at OPM, the hackers would have gone away empty handed.

The analytics used to measure normal operation in a legacy system must be constantly evaluated and improved. As an example, OPM had a multi-billion dollar intrusion detection system in place (called, ironically, Einstein) during the breaches. It failed miserably. It failed because it relied on people to tell it what to look for. Since the breach was caused by a previously unknown technique (also called a "zero day exploit"), it was not being tracked by the IDS. The lesson OPM offers for IT here is that blind reliance on any analytic tool will not guarantee your data is safe from attack.

To avoid losing precious information, enterprises must be flexible enough to rethink how they do business, how they store and use data. CTOs and CIOs are the leaders in this effort. But there is no technological magic bullet to be found. What has worked for you before will not stand up to sophisticated future attacks. Just ask Anthem.

Larry Loeb has written for many of the last century's major "dead tree" computer magazines, having been, among other things, a consulting editor for BYTE magazine and senior editor for the launch of WebWeek. He has written a book on the Secure Electronic Transaction Internet ... View Full Bio
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larryloeb
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larryloeb,
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6/24/2015 | 10:38:05 AM
Re: The hackers
Well, besides the obvious IP tracking used (and correlating it to other previous attacks) there seems to have been certain code fragments and techniques that were used before.

There may be other factors here nobody is talking about (NSA powning Chinese assets?) but considering boththe target and the techniques used, there is a decent chain to link this to nation-states.
kstaron
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kstaron,
User Rank: Ninja
6/24/2015 | 10:24:18 AM
The hackers
While I find it unsurprising that China or Russia might hack for government intel, since I doubt the countries are confessing to such things, how do we know it's them? How reliable are the processes we use to determine who hacked us? I ask mainly because I had heard rumors the Sony and North Korea thing at one point looked like an inside job made to look like North Korea. One you're hacked, how much faith can you put in who you think did it?
Ulf Mattsson
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Ulf Mattsson,
User Rank: Strategist
6/18/2015 | 4:06:45 PM
Re: Commercial encryption products that existed in year 2000 could have prevented the breach
Thank you. Now I better understand why the data was not secured.

Publishing companies in US encrypted data on mainframe/cobol in 2005 to selectively prevent administrators and other users from reading sensitive data.

Ulf Mattsson, CTO Protegrity
larryloeb
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larryloeb,
User Rank: Author
6/18/2015 | 3:39:23 PM
Re: Commercial encryption products that existed in year 2000 could have prevented the breach
Well, the way I heard this one was that OPM was a COBOL shop using 20 year old programs. I cant recall any COBOL crypto libraries, although an OS wrapper may have been useful.

 

Remember, the is the US Government we are talking aobut. If there is no funding for a progaram, it doesnt happen. Congress has to tell these guys to implement.

And I dont think OPM even had a CIO untll 2013.
Ulf Mattsson
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Ulf Mattsson,
User Rank: Strategist
6/18/2015 | 2:46:39 PM
Commercial encryption products that existed in year 2000 could have prevented the breach
My understanding is that OPM is using commercial databases, including Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle. It is likely that commercial data security products could solve the security issues 8 years ago, when the OPM compliance issues surfaced.

As early as 2000 in US, leading beverage brands and a leading investment banks encrypted sensitive information to prevent unauthorized access by root, database administrators and other users, in commercial databases including Microsoft SQL Server 2000 and Oracle 8i.

It is likely that commercial encryption products that existed in year 2000 could have prevented or significantly limited this large data breach.

Ulf Mattsson, CTO Protegrity
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