2014 In Space: 11 Major Achievements - InformationWeek

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David F Carr
David F Carr
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2014 In Space: 11 Major Achievements

Comets and capsules grabbed top headlines, but robots racked up some firsts, the commercialization of space saw advances and setbacks, and the US prepared to resume manned space launches.
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Even as NASA worked on getting back into the business of launching men and women into orbit -- and perhaps soon beyond Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars -- robotic spacecraft seemed to be doing more real exploration in 2014.

This is not really a new thing. Sputnik beat Yuri Gagarin and John Glenn into orbit. Three years before the Apollo 11 moon landing in 1969 by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, there were landings by the Soviet Luna 6 and the US Surveyor 1, both unmanned craft -- robots, though unsophisticated by today's standards.

Even in the mid-1960s, in the early days of the Cold War space race, unmanned spacecraft achieved flyby visits to locales like Venus and Mars that humans still aren't close to visiting. That gap only widened as unmanned craft began exploring the outer planets and their moons. On Saturday, NASA's New Horizon's spacecraft is expected to begin an exploration of Pluto and its moons. Mission planners hope to work in visits to yet more distant bodies in the Kuiper Belt, the region far from the sun where comets are born.

The robotic exploration of the year belonged not to NASA, but to the European Space Agency (though NASA and its Jet Propulsion Laboratory played a supporting role). The ESA's Rosetta mission successfully put a lander on the surface of a speeding comet. While offering many lessons, the mission didn't go perfectly by any means. Harpoons were supposed to spear into the snowy surface of the tiny world and hold the spacecraft in place, despite the negligible gravity of a comet. When they failed to fire, the craft apparently bounced, maybe several times, but managed to land more or less upright, orient its antenna, and beam home pictures and instrument readings. As technologists, we could sympathize with the remote debugging challenge of understanding what had gone wrong and how serious it was.

Ultimately, the Rosetta lander, known as Philae, landed in the wrong orientation and in too much shadow to sustain the solar power needed to operate on the comet for more than a couple of days. However, hope remains that, as the comet comes closer to the sun, Philae may accumulate enough power to reboot and continue its mission.

Meanwhile, NASA is taking steps to ensure that its astronauts bound for the International Space Station will not have to hitch a ride with the Russians, even if the alternative is that astronauts will have to rent a ride instead. The first two commercial firms signed up to provide crewed launches to low Earth orbit are SpaceX, which is already sending unmanned payloads to the ISS, and Boeing, a more established aerospace firm that NASA judged to have the Right Stuff.

The goal is to make trips to Earth orbit routine, freeing NASA to focus on exploring further into space, possibly sending the first crew to Mars or an asteroid or maybe back to the moon, at least as a trial run. The goals keep shifting, and the funding is not as steady or the political will as constant as it was in the Apollo era, but the capability to send people beyond Earth orbit is coming into focus.

A new space capsule -- a crew module called Orion that looks like a throwback to Apollo, only larger, successfully lauched Friday morning. Though it's designed to carry a crew, Orion flew unmanned for this first launch, which is intended as a thorough test of all subsystems, including a new flight computer adapted from one used on commercial jetliners.

Click ahead for more of what 2014 brought us in space exploration.

(Above: From the approach to a comet landing. Image: ESA)

David F. Carr oversees InformationWeek's coverage of government and healthcare IT. He previously led coverage of social business and education technologies and continues to contribute in those areas. He is the editor of Social Collaboration for Dummies (Wiley, Oct. 2013) and ... View Full Bio

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User Rank: Apprentice
12/10/2014 | 4:00:16 AM
Minor correction
Hi David,

Great article - one minor correction:

On #9, Virgin Galactic's craft is not designed to reach orbit.  It gets going a few thousand miles an hour and flies a parabola out of and back into the atmosphere - passengers would get a few minutes of float time.  To reach orbit, it would have to reach roughly 17,000 miles an hour.

On #7, for what it's worth, SpaceX flew a 3d printed engine part in January of this year.



David F. Carr
David F. Carr,
User Rank: Author
12/8/2014 | 3:13:00 PM
Re: NASA's return to space
From an information tech point of view, an automated flight is the ultimate shakedown for the spaceship's software and revamped flight computer, including guiding the craft through a reentry without burning up and deploying the parachutes at the right time to bring it in for splashdown.
D. Henschen
IW Pick
D. Henschen,
User Rank: Author
12/8/2014 | 9:43:57 AM
NASA's return to space
I know it was only a 4.5 hour flight -- shy of the achievements of John Glenn's Friendship 7 back in 1962 -- but I was heartened to see the Orion launch last week, which marked the return of NASA to the launch business and, soon, manned space flight. Catch this launch video on YouTube. It's only seven minutes, but watching it makes me feel like a kid again watching Apollo missions.
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